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(8 AUG 1605 - 30 NOV 1675) First son and heir of George Calvert , Cecil was raised a Catholic, attended Trinity College, Oxford, and in 1628 married the Catholic Anne Arundell (d. 1649). He inherited the title, Irish estates, and the 10-12 million acres of American land in what became Maryland from his father and served as the designer and first Lord Proprietor of that colony from 1632-1675.

He never journeyed to America, but he skillfully preserved his charter rights from enemies over the course of several decades, established Maryland on a sound and prosperous footing to the depletion of his personal fortune, and consistently and innovatively promoted religious toleration for all Christians living in his colony. His son Charles (1637-1715) served as governor of Maryland from 1661 to 1675 and as second Lord Proprietor and third Lord Baltimore from 1675 to 1715.